Still another likely area for the transforming effect of computers is education. The actual question is. How much human contact is necessary or desirable for learning? Now Undoubtedly it’s quite proper to ask How well do computers educate? As teachers and students exchange more information indirectly via computer networks and as computers take over more routine instructional activities, the question will inevitably switch to What is education? You should take this seriously. What actually is education when computers do the teaching?
Currently, educational packages for computers are rather limited. Basically the values associated with the traditional way of educating might be challenged. American Airlines once promoted this kind of a service called SABRE. Indeed, Braniff Airlines, that went into bankruptcy for awhile, sued American Airlines on the grounds that this kind of bias in the reservation service contributed to its financial difficulties. Sometimes a American Airline flight was suggested by the computer even if it was not p flight available because This program had a bias for American Airline flights built in.a lot of different programs could’ve been written to produce a reservation service. Consider, for instance, computerized airline reservations. That said, this becomes a significant ethical issue as the consequences grow in importance. Notice that the serious issue is how much we should trust a computer’s invisible calculations. Loads of information can be found online. Making decisions about launching nuclear weapons without using computers should be even more fallible and more dangerous. On the one hand, computers are fallible and there may not be time to confirm their assessment of the situation.
What might be our policy about trusting invisible calculations? For example, computers are used by the military in making decisions about launching nuclear weapons. Computers day perform, and certainly supercomputers in the future will perform, calculations which are Now look, a third various the invisibility factor, that is perhaps the most disturbing, is invisible complex calculation. It does not follow that the calculations on the basis of that program are understood, even if a program is understood. I use the phrase computer technology being that I take the subject matter of the field broadly to include computers and associated technology. On my view, computer ethics is the analysis of the nature and social impact of computer technology and the corresponding formulation and justification of policies for the ethical use of such technology.
For sake of example, To be honest I include concerns about software as well as hardware and concerns about networks connecting computers as well as computers themselves.
We are gradually entering the second stage, the permeation stage, in which computer technology shall be an integral part of institutions throughout our society.
My conjecture is that the Computer Revolution will follow a similar two stage development. By the way, the first stage, the introduction stage, had been occurring in the course of the last forty years. I think that in the coming decades many human activities and social institutions could be transformed by computer technology and that this transforming effect of computerization will raise a vast selection of problems for computer ethics. Electronic computers was created and refined. Then again, the burglar has done something legally and ethically wrong, Therefore in case a burglar steals available office equipment including computers. Not all ethical situations involving computers are central to computer ethics. So it’s really a huge problem for general law and ethics. Computers are only accidently involved in this situation, and there’s no policy or conceptual vacuum to fill. Did you know that the mark of a basic problem in computer ethics is one in which computer technology is essentially involved and there’s an uncertainty about what to do and even about how to remember the situation.
Situation and the applicable policy are clear.
What opportunities and values are lost or gained when money becomes intangible?
What actually is money? Actually a further example of the transforming effect of computer technology is found in financial institutions. Therefore, for example, in a cashless society in which debits are made to one’s account electronically at the point of sale, has money disappeared in favor of computer records or have electronic impulses become money? As the transfer and storage of funds becomes increasingly computerized the question should be not merely How well do computers count money? Then again, nor is computer ethics the rote application of ethical basics to a value free technology. Actually, computer ethics requires us to think anew about the nature of computer technology and our values. On my view, computer ethics is a dynamic and complex field of study which considers the relationships among facts, conceptualizations, policies and values with regard to constantly changing computer technology. I know it’s also a discipline in its own right which provides both conceptualizations for understanding and policies for using computer technology, nevertheless computer ethics is a field between science and ethics and depends on them. Computer ethics isn’t a fixed set of rules which one shellacs and hangs on the wall.
One might claim the newness of computers makes them revolutionary.
As important as these features are, they don’t seem to get to the heart of the Computer Revolution.
Electronic digital computers was around for forty years. However, this particular thesis requires qualification. Accordingly a better way to state this claim is that recent engineering advances in computers make them revolutionary. A well-known fact that is. Computers may not be completely easy to use but at least they are much less unfriendly. Then, gether with dramatic increases in computer speed and memory there been dramatic decreases in computer size. Obviously, computers are immensely improved over the last forty years. Actually, So if the abacus counts as a computer, therefore computer technology is among the oldest technologies. Computer manufacturers are quick to point out that desk p computers day exceed the engineering specifications of computers which filled rooms only a few decades ago. Have you heard of something like this before? They aren’t in the relevant sense revolutionary. Powerful and easytouse electric can openers are great improvements over earlier can openers.
There had been also a determined effort by companies to make computer hardware and computer software easier to use.
Semantically, the logic of computers is malleable in that the states of the computer can be taken to represent anything.
Consider an alternative and popular conception of computers in which computers are understood as number crunchers, essentially as numerical devices. For example, And so it’s only one among many interpretations, the arithmetic interpretation is certainly a correct one. On this conception computers are only big calculators. That is interesting right? Thus, many of us know that there is no ontological basis for giving preference to numerical applications over nonnumerical applications. Syntactically, the logic of computers is malleable looking at the number and various possible states and operations.
It should take precedence over nonnumerical applications like word processing.
Logical malleability has both a syntactic and a semantic dimension.
My position, on the contrary, is that computers are logically malleable. On p of that, computers manipulate symbols but they don’t care what the symbols represent. 100 – visit this page in case you need more read.
One can be quite knowledgeable about the inputs and outputs of a computer and only dimly aware of the internal processing. On p of that, this invisibility factor often generates policy vacuums about how to use computer technology. For the most part there’s an important fact about computers. That’s where it starts getting really intriguing. 9 times out of 10 and under most conditions computer operations are invisible. Here I will mention three invisibility kinds which can have ethical significance.
Actually the fact that computers can be described in mathematical language, even at a very low level, doesn’t make them essentially numerical.
Machine language is conveniently and traditionally expressed in 0’s and l’ the 0’s and l’s simply designate different physical states.
It’s a well-known fact that the mistake is to reify the mathematical notation as the essence of a computer and after all use this conception to make judgments about the appropriate use of computers. Obviously, at Undoubtedly it’s useful to use mathematical notation to describe computer operations, and That’s a fact, it’s reasonable to use it. Remember, we could label these states as on and off or yin and yang and apply binary logic. Accordingly a second types of the invisibility factor, that is more subtle and conceptually interesting than the first, is the presence of invisible programming values. For instance, invisible programming values are those values which are embedded in a computer program. If you are going to implement a program which satisfies the specifications a programmer makes some value judgments about what’s important and what’s not.
Different houses are compatible with a given set of specifications.
Writing a computer program is like building a house.
These values become embedded in the final product and should be invisible to someone who runs the program. Similarly, a request for a computer program is made at an amount of abstraction usually far removed from the details of the actual programming language. Can be, a builder must make numerous decisions about matters not specified if you are going to construct the house. What’s needed in such cases is an analysis which provides a coherent conceptual framework within which to formulate a policy for action. Now it may seem that all that needs to be done is the mechanical application of an ethical theory to generate the appropriate policy. So a difficulty is that gether with a policy vacuum look, there’s often a conceptual vacuum. Indeed, much of the important work in computer ethics is devoted to proposing conceptual frameworks for understanding ethical problems involving computer technology. Accordingly a little reflection reveals a conceptual muddle, nonetheless a problem in computer ethics may seem clear initially.
So it’s usually not possible.
I think it shows that computer ethics should have increasing application in our society.
Now this argument rests on the invisibility factor and suggests quite a few ethical problems confronting computer ethics now. So, I find this argument for the practical value of computer ethics convincing. That said, I will turn to another argument for the practical importance of computer ethics which doesn’t depend upon any particular view of the Computer Revolution. Now look. Therefore this argument does rest on a vision of the Computer Revolution which not everyone may share. Computers are special technology and they raise some special ethical problems. Then, actually, I actually want to characterize computer ethics and show why this emerging field is both intellectually interesting and enormously important. In this essay I will discuss what makes computers different from other technology and how this difference makes a difference in ethical considerations. What actually is it about computers that makes them revolutionary, I know it’s often said that a Computer Revolution is taking place.
What actually is special about computers?
Is there any real basis for comparing the Computer Revolution with the Industrial Revolution?
Accordingly a manufacturer of a tally new dripless pouring spout may well promote it as revolutionary. One difficulty in assessing the revolutionary nature of computers is that the word revolutionary is devalued. Undoubtedly everchanging computer technology is revolutionary, if minor technological improvements are revolutionary. Known the interesting issue, ofcourse, is whether there’s some nontrivial sense in which computers are revolutionary. So, what makes computer technology importantly different from other technology? This is the case. Even minor technological improvements are heralded as revolutionary. With that said, I also wish to stress the underlying importance of general ethics and science to computer ethics.
These considerations are essential in comparing and justifying policies for ethical conduct.
Ethical theory provides categories and procedures for determining what actually is ethically relevant.
Applied ethics isn’t simply ethics applied. Similarly, scientific information is crucial in ethical evaluations. What are our basic rights? I’m sure it sounds familiar. It’s amazing exactly how many times ethical disputes turn not on disagreements about values but on disagreements about facts. What’s an impartial outlook? Consequently, in one sense I am arguing for the special status of computer ethics as a field of study. Besides, what kinds of things are good? As personal computers become widespread and allow executives to work from the comfort of your house, and as robots do more factory work, the emerging question should be not merely How well do computers been used for years by businesses to expedite routine work, just like calculating payrolls.
I believe we will see more of the transforming effect of computers on our basic institutions and practices, as computers permeate way more of our society.
That’s a fact, it’s reasonable to think that various facts of our daily work should be transformed, only can know for sure how our computerized society will look fifty years from now.
What really is the nature of this work? Traditional work may no longer be defined as something that normally happens at a specific time or a specific place. Executives who work at a computer terminal in the apartments will lose kinds of work types. Now look, the values associated with the old concept will have to be reexamined, as the concept of work begins to change. Factory workers who direct robots by pressing buttons may take less pride in a finished product.
Commercial pilots who watch computers fly their planes may find their jobs to be different from what they expected.
a couple of features suggest themselves, if we look around for features that make computers revolutionary.
Surely it’s not much of an exaggeration to say that currently in our society every major business, factory, school, bank, and hospital is rushing to utilize computer technology. Computers are integral parts of products which don’t look much like computers like watches and automobiles. In our society computers are affordable and abundant. Of course so are pencils, computers are abundant and inexpensive. Millions of personal computers are being sold for home use. Of course mere abundance and affordability don’t seem sufficient to justify any claim to technological revolution. However, another possibility for invisible abuse is the invasion of the property and privacy of others.
Sometimes an inexpensive computer and a telephone hookup is all it requires.
Obviously such invasions can be done with malice and be difficult or impossible to detect, these break ins were done as pranks.
Accordingly a computer can be programmed to contact another computer over phone lines and surreptitiously remove or alter confidential information.a number of teenagers, who named themselves the 414s after the Milwaukee telephone exchange, used their home computers to invade a New York City hospital, a California bank, and a government nuclear weapons laboratory. With all that said… Shortly after the disaster the computer was reprogrammed to simulate situations like the one that did occur at Three Mile Island.
Sometimes invisible programming values are so invisible that even the programmers are unaware of them.
As the Kemeny Commission which investigated the disaster discovered, the simulator was not programmed to generate simultaneous, independent malfunctions.
In the actual failure at Three Mile Island the operators were faced with exactly this situation simultaneous, independent malfunctions. Accordingly the inadequacy of the computer simulation was the result of a programming decision, as unconscious or implicit as that decision may was. Eventually, programs may have bugs or might be depending on implicit assumptions which don’t become obvious until many of us know that there is a cr. I am sure that the operators of the illfated Three Mile Island nuclear power plant were trained on a computer which was programmed to simulate possible malfunctions including malfunctions which were dependent on other malfunctions. We are open to invisible abuse or invisible programming of inappropriate values or invisible miscalculation.
Information which is lost in a sea of data can be clearly revealed with the proper computer analysis.
So it’s just this invisibility that makes us vulnerable.
Partial solution to the invisibility problem may lie with computers themselves. Computers can make the invisible visible. That is interesting right? Amid the strengths of computers is the ability to locate hidden information and display it. As a result, so it is another reason why computer ethics is so important. Let me tell you something. In regards to efficiency the invisibility factor is a blessing. So challenge for computer ethics is to formulate policies which will need to inspect any computerized transaction or program each step for ourselves or watch every computer calculation. Nonetheless, that’s the catch. I’m sure it sounds familiar. We are happy in one sense that the operations of a computer are invisible. Let me tell you something. We must decide when to trust computers and when not to trust them. It’s a well the invisibility factor presents us with a dilemma. We don’t always know when, where, and how to direct the computer’s attention. Typical problem in computer ethics arises as there is a policy vacuum about how computer technology should’ve been used.
Computers provide us with new capabilities and these in turn give us new choices for action.
Some ethical situations confront us as individuals and Accordingly a central task of computer ethics is to determine what we must do in such cases, to formulate policies to guide our actions. Actually, By the way I believe the domain of computer ethics is quite large and extends to problems which affect all of us. I hope to show something of the nature of computer ethics by doing some computer ethics. Actually, I’m quite sure I want to analyze what really is special about computers, what social impact computers will have, and what really is operationally suspect about computing technology. Some information can be found by going online. I will proceed not by giving a list of problems but rather by analyzing the conditions and forces which generate ethical problems about computer technology. Though I have indicated quite a few intellectually interesting features of computer ethics, Know what guys, I have not said much about the problems of the field or about its practical importance.
Now I look for to turn to a consideration of these problems and argue for the practical importance of computer ethics. The main example I have used so far is the significant problem of protecting computer programs which may is likely to be a very narrow concern. Particularly insidious example of invisible abuse is the use of computers for surveillance. Computers can be programmed to monitor phone calls and electronic mail without giving any evidence of tampering. Texas oil company, for instance, was baffled why it was always outbid on leasing rights for Alaskan territory until it discovered another bidder was tapping its data transmission lines near its Alaskan computer terminal. For sake of example, a company’s central computer can monitor the work done on computer terminals far better and more discreetly than the most dedicated sweatshop manager.
Research Center on Computing Society at Southern Connecticut State University has launched a project to identify and study information ethics problems in the underdeveloped world. Our goal is to identify problems and opportunities about ICT and later suggest to underdeveloped lands ways to solve or prevent such problems by taking advantage of promising new technology. Even if one sets out to create a program for a completely unbiased reservation service, some value judgments are latent in the program as some choices have to be made about how the program operates. For what period after the time requested are flights listed? So, programmer of this particular service may or may not be engaged in invisible abuse, the general use of a biased reservation service is ethically suspicious.
Are airlines listed in alphabetical order?
There can be a difference between how a programmer intends a program to be used and how it’s actually used.
Are flights just before the time requested listed? For sake of example, in this case the conceptualization will determine when programs count as instances of quite similar program. You see, an example may what really was a computer program? Certainly, these questions must be answered with an eye to formulate an useful policy for protecting computer programs. Therefore a number of questions which do not have obvious answers emerge. Is it an expression of an idea that is owned or is it a process that is owned, if a computer program is intellectual property. Ok, and now one of the most important parts. Initially, the idea may seem clear enough. We are looking for a policy for protecting a kind of intellectual property.
Is it really intellectual property which can be owned or is it more like an idea, an algorithm, that is not owned by anybody?
We should suppose we are striving to formulate a policy for protecting computer programs.
We need a conceptualization of the nature of a computer program with an eye to answer these kinds of questions. Notice that the conceptualization we pick won’t only affect how a policy should be applied but to a certain extent what the facts are. Nevertheless, without access to the program used for stealing the interest or to a sophisticated accounting program this activity may easily go unnoticed. Invisible abuse is the intentional use of the invisible operations of a computer to engage in unethical conduct. By the way, the most obvious kind of invisibility which has ethical significance is invisible abuse. Furthermore, for the most part there’s often a fraction of a cent left over after rounding off, when interest on a master card is calculated.
Did you know that a classic example of that’s the case of a programmer who realized he could steal excess interest from a bank.
This programmer instructed a computer to deposit these fractions of a cent to his own account.
So it’s relevant to computer ethics in that computer technology is essentially involved and there’s a question about what policy to institute to best detect and prevent such abuse, this is an ordinary case of stealing. Other ways of conceiving computers serve less well as a basis for formulating and justifying policies for action. I think logical malleability explains the already widespread application of computers and hints at the enormous impact computers are destined to have. Understanding logical malleability is also important in setting policies for the use of computers. Notice, understanding the logical malleability of computers is essential to understanding the power of the developing technological revolution. Even within a coherent conceptual framework, the formulation of a policy for using computer technology can be difficult. New values emerge, as we consider different policies we discover something about what we value and what we don’ since computer technology provides us with new possibilities for acting. Creating software has value in our culture which it didn’t have a few decades ago.
Whenever assuming software is intellectual property, why should intellectual property be protected, let’s say.
Old values have to be reconsidered.
Consideration of alternative policies forces us to discover and make explicit what our value preferences are. During this stage inventions and processes were introduced, tested, and improved. Eventually, whenever ranging from labor unions to health services, occurred, as factory work increased and the populations of cities swelled, not only did prominent social evils emerge, equally significantly corresponding changes in human activities and institutions. That said, the forces of industrialization dramatically transformed the society. Basically the second stage was the technological permeation stage which ok place in the course of the Nineteenth Century.
It’s an interesting fact that the first stage was the technological introduction stage which ok place throughout the last half of the Eighteenth Century.
Roughly, the Industrial Revolution in England occurred in two major stages.
By looking at the Industrial Revolution I believe we can get some insight into the nature of a technological revolution. There was an industrialization of limited segments of the economy, particularly in agriculture and textiles. On p of that, I know it’s difficult to get a perspective on its development, since the omputer Revolution is in progress. Accordingly an interesting example of such complex calculation occurred in 1976 when a computer worked on the four color conjecture. Practically speaking the calculations are what’s interesting about this mathematical proof, compared to traditional proofs, is that Undoubtedly it’s largely invisible. Four color conjecture was proved correct, just after more than a thousand hours of computer time on various computers.
Mathematicians at the University of Illinois broke the serious issue down into thousands of cases and programmed computers to consider them. No adjacent areas have similar color since The four color problem, a puzzle mathematicians have worked on for over a century is to show that a map can be colored with at most four colors. Now, a typical question for this stage is How well does a computer do such and this activity? It’s marked by the kinds of questions that are asked. Later, throughout the permeation stage, computers become an integral part of the activity. So a typical question for this stage is What is the nature and value of such and this particular activity? What I mean by transformed is that the basic nature or purpose of an activity or institution is changed. In our society there’s already some evidence of the transforming effect of computerization as marked by the kind of questions being asked. Anyway, throughout the introduction stage computers are understood as ols for doing standard jobs. Logical malleability assures the enormous application of computer technology.